Santal people basically they depends on village Administrative consist of five members. They own create the head of the village and other members through election on Mag Festival.
Five members are :-
These all members are control the law and order of the village and socio economic of the village.
Santals are belonging to the " SARNA " religion. They worship at "JAHER THAN" which present under the shall tree
The Santal people believe in one God (Bonga) called Marang Buru.In all festivals and functions they start worship with Handia. (Rice beer) That so they start the worship with lord shiva.Which is very important for all santals. We have seen like other people like odiya Brahmin they have start Kalash which is related to lord Ganesh. But in Santal they have start with lord shiva which is very important for Santal people.Santal people have many Gods like Lord Bishnu, Lord Brahma etc. They I have 360000000 (thirty six corer) Gods or goddesses. But they are only worship to Lord Siva. Because they think that lord shiva to creates the livelihood in earth.
They use, ice Beer (Handia) in every function and festivals.
Besides Marang Buru they believe in Jaher ayo. Each village of santal has a Jaher or "Jaher gall" or "Jaher thhan"which is similar to temple for Santal people. The Santal people worship goddess Jaher Ayo twice in a year. Yearly two times the head of the village like Majhi Halam sacrifices hen small hen to Jaher ayo for safe life and safe livelihood. The first festival of santals is "Baha Bonga", Baha means flower and Bonga means God. And the second festival celebrated is "Maah Mone" .There is two types of festivals celebrated by majhi halam in jaher.
Santal people believe strongly in their tradition and they respect their culture and tradition. Santali women participate actively in various Santali cultural programmers and functions .They are efficient in handling various works and activities at the time of festivals. When a male child is born he is addressed as Bahachula and female child is addressed as Lukhi. Santal people do not make any discrimination between boy and girl child.
From birth to death a Santal women passes through vision bio-cultural stages of life which are mentioned below for reference.
1. Erok Sim
2. Hans Sim
4. Sohrai (Deewali)
5. Sakrat (Makar Sankranti)
6. Magh simm
7. Baha bonga
8. Abge Bonga
9. Sima Bonga
11.Mah More (mole)
There are twelve types of festival in Santal society. But Baha bonga and sakrat parab is the most important festival in the Santal society. And Other parab is very small type which is done by Majhi Halam, and Godeth Halam, Paranik Halam, Jog Majhi halam and Bhalbhai these are priest of Baha Bonga and another festival. Santal people have only one priest that is Majhi Halam.
Baha festival is one of the main festivals of Santals. It is observed in the month of Fagun which falls in between February and March. This is the time of spring season. The temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer. The nature takes her new posture with new leaves and flowers in the tree which gives immense Pleasure to the creatures. Under this environment, Santal People observe their Baha festival.
The philosophy behind the observation of Baha festival is that spring season. In the time when leaves, flowers and fruits come in the trees. Wild animals and birds move higher and search of new leaves flowers and fruits. So this is the appropriate time for the men to collect these flowers and fruits and hunt the animals and birds in the deep forest. There is every apprehension that my come cross various danger or they may wrongly collect the poisonous fruits for their consumption. There is another apprehension mankind that after the end of spring season the summer sets in which categories the epidemic like chicken pox, small pox to break out in the country side. During these time cows, oxen buffaloes, goats etc. go in to the deep forest in search of new leaves and flowers. So, there is an every possibility for them to be in danger.
The santals religious worship is mainly congregational. There is no individual approach to the bongas but fellowship with them to maintain through sacrifices and offering made on behold of a particular social Nit. Be it the village, the sub-clan or the house hold likewise the celebrations which accompany such collective rituals in which people participate for the welfare of the entire group are truly occasions for collective action. They function as channels through which cultural traditions are expressed and affirmed.
It is generally on the occasion of such rites collective season and the Dances and festivals associated with them that Santal experiences religious. She sees in these festivals an occasional to forget the worries, stress and strains stimulation of collective public worship. The santals feel or imagine themselves to be in touch with their spirits upon whom they Depended in this way they are inspired with confidence and hope and with a certain sense of security admits the uncertainties of life.
Similarly as a result of such communal worship, the feeling of community belonging in intensified, thus strengthening also social solidarity. Santal season rites and festivals contain laws.
The sacrificial offering is clearly at the centre of every Santal ritual. Much has been written about the mature of sacrifice.
The work of 'Robertson smith brought about a revolution in the traditional theory about a revolution in the traditional theory of sacrifice. He was the first to point out that sacrifice bouquet have the object of making the worshipper and his god share the some sacrificial meal so as to form a kinship bond between them. Where we ascent wrong was in his considering the communion aspect as the unique element of the sacrifice but leaving out the nation of oblation and absurdity so revolting that it could never have been the fundamental reason for such an institution.
In Santal sacrifices connected with their agricultural activities both the communion and oblation elements are intimately interred connected. The sacrificial communion symbolizes a sense of presence and fellowship with the spirits. Though the major portion of the victim is consumed by the people present, a portion is set aside for the spirit of spirit in whose honour the sacrifice is made.
The communion element is also manifest when rice-beer libations are made. The communion element is also drink. Through this process of sharing in the sacrificial food and drink, the santal share in the beneficial power of heir providence moreover, according to Santal beliefs the invisible world is considered to be and extension of the visible one.
Sakrat parab is the second most important festival in the Santal society. This is one type of parablot which is very dear and near to Santal society.
Sakrat is felt on month of January and in winter season sakrat is not village festival it is personal. In this parab Santal people have a lot day because this is the very attractive for Santal women. In this parab every Santal people wearing new cloths and new rice of paddy which harvest in the month of December. In this festival Santal women are prepare the taben and rice-beer for male person in the family. Every Santal people wear the new cloths and invite to another people for attend the festival. They are enjoying the festival and sing the festival song. First song sung by male person then that women are followed the song of male person. That day they prepare the cake of rice with sugar and meat cake, leto (mixed rice with meat) that day do not use any cookery items or plate they eat on the leafs plate and leafs item.
In every festival that women role is very different than men in the Santal society. Women are collect leafs from forest. Then prepare the rice beer. Santal women offered the tang handi (rice beer)to male person of family.